Rochester Institute of Technology The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the finding that depression and suicide are becoming more and more likely to occur among older adults. The theory behind this finding that older adults are becoming more and more depressed and committing suicide at a greater rate than ever before is due to their failing physical and mental health.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors.
Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families.
Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination i. When accounting for risk factors associated with additional stressors in the family and surrounding environment, only those children with dual exposure had an elevated risk of the tested outcomes compared to non-exposed youth.
However, while there were some observable differences in the prediction of outcomes for children with dual exposure compared to those with single exposure i. Analyses showed that the effects of exposure for boys and girls are statistically comparable.
Herrenkohl, Sousa, Tajima, R. Studies investigating dual exposure have produced mixed results, suggesting the need for further investigation. For example, some studies have found that children doubly exposed to abuse and domestic violence have worse outcomes than others Hughes et al.
This investigation aims to strengthen research on the unique and combined effects of exposure to child abuse and domestic violence on psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. The study also seeks to examine whether gender interacts with abuse and domestic violence exposure in the prediction of youth outcomes.
Relation between Child Abuse and Adverse Psychosocial Outcomes Numerous studies have demonstrated that experiencing child abuse can lead to a range of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Teens who were abused as children are also more likely to exhibit externalizing behavior problems, such as delinquency and violence perpetration Fergusson et al.
In a recent meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between domestic violence exposure in childhood and adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors, Evans, Davies, and DiLillo found significant mean-weighted effect sizes of.
Hughes found that children who were direct victims of abuse and exposed to domestic violence had higher externalizing and internalizing scores than did those who only witnessed domestic violence DV. However, Sternberg et al. Theirs was a study of children, 8 to 12 years of age.
Analyses compared children who: The study also included a no-violence comparison group. Results showed that children in the no-violence comparison group reported lower levels of depression and internalizing and externalizing behaviors than those in any of the three violence exposure groups.
However, those who were doubly exposed to child abuse and domestic violence were no more likely than the children in the abuse-only or DV-only groups to experience these outcomes.
Sternberg, Baradaran, Abbot, Lamb, and Guterman conducted what they describe as a mega-analysis in which they pooled raw data on age, gender, behavior problems, and violence exposure from 15 studies, resulting in a dataset of 1, subjects ages 4 to 14 years.
They used regression analyses to investigate unique and combined effects of child abuse and domestic violence on externalizing and internalizing behaviors, measured by the Child Behavior Check List Achenbach, a.
The authors found that the children who were dually exposed to child abuse and domestic violence were consistently at higher risk for internalizing problems than child abuse victims, domestic violence witnesses, and those who had not been exposed.
Children ages 4 and 9 years of age who were doubly exposed to abuse and domestic violence also were at higher risk for externalizing behavior, although this dual exposure effect did not hold for children who were 10 to 14 years of age.
Although these studies provide some evidence of an additive effect on outcomes of abuse and domestic violence exposure, patterns in the data are not uniform and there is a need for longitudinal analyses that extend into later adolescence.
Analyses need also to account for other co-existing risk factors. Gender Differences Support is mixed with respect to gender differences in effects of witnessing domestic violence, being the direct victim of abuse, or both.
Kitzmann, Gaylord, Holt, and Kenny conducted a meta-analysis using studies of psychosocial outcomes related to domestic violence exposure.Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing ashio-midori.com is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child.
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Akash Kapur Senior Fellow. Akash Kapur is a Senior Fellow at the GovLab. Akash has consulted for a variety of organizations (including UNDP and The Markle Foundation) on issues including Internet governance, the digital divide, open data, and health IT.
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