It was arguably a response to the highly effective French Industrial Exposition of
Such public property fences were sawed for the iron and recycled during World War II. New chemical industries created in the late 19th century both invented new materials e. Bakelite  and promised to transform valueless into valuable materials.
New and better paths are opened to reach the goals desired.
Financial constraints and significant material shortages due to war efforts made it necessary for countries to reuse goods and recycle materials. Recycling household materials meant more resources for war efforts and a better chance of victory. Post-World War II[ edit ] A considerable investment in recycling occurred in the s, due to rising energy costs.
They began to export the problem to developing countries without enforced environmental legislation. This is cheaper, as recycling computer monitors in the United States costs 10 times more than in China.
Demand in Asia for electronic waste began to grow when scrap yards found that they could extract valuable substances such as copper, silver, iron, silicon, nickel, and gold, during the recycling process.
Three legislative options have been used to create such a supply: The city is then responsible for working to meet this target. When a product in such a container is purchased, a small surcharge is added to the price. This surcharge can be reclaimed by the consumer if the container is returned to a collection point.
These programs have been very successful, often resulting in an 80 percent recycling rate.
One aim of this method is to create a viable economy for proper disposal of banned products. Care must be taken that enough of these recycling services exist, or such bans simply lead to increased illegal dumping. Four methods of such legislation exist: Content mandates specify that a certain percentage of a new product must consist of recycled material.
Utilization rates are a more flexible option: Opponents to both of these methods point to the large increase in reporting requirements they impose, and claim that they rob industry of necessary flexibility.
These policies are either "set-asides", which reserve a certain amount of spending solely towards recycled products, or "price preference" programs which provide a larger budget when recycled items are purchased. Additional regulations can target specific cases: When producers are required to label their packaging with amount of recycled material in the product including the packagingconsumers are better able to make educated choices.
Consumers with sufficient buying power can then choose more environmentally conscious options, prompt producers to increase the amount of recycled material in their products, and indirectly increase demand.
Standardized recycling labeling can also have a positive effect on supply of recyclates if the labeling includes information on how and where the product can be recycled. For example, plastic bottles that are collected can be re-used and made into plastic pellets, a new product.
Recyclate quality is generally referring to how much of the raw material is made up of target material compared to the amount of non-target material and other non-recyclable material. If the recyclate is of poor quality, it is more likely to end up being down-cycled or, in more extreme cases, sent to other recovery options or landfilled.
The quality of recyclate not only supports high-quality recycling, but it can also deliver significant environmental benefits by reducing, reusing and keeping products out of landfills.
There are many actions along the recycling supply chain that can influence and affect the material quality of recyclate. This can affect the quality of final recyclate streams or require further efforts to discard those materials at later stages in the recycling process.
Depending on which materials are collected together, extra effort is required to sort this material back into separate streams and can significantly reduce the quality of the final product.
Sorting facilities are not one hundred per cent effective in separating materials, despite improvements in technology and quality recyclate which can see a loss in recyclate quality. Reprocessing facilities may require further sorting steps to further reduce the amount of non-target and non-recyclable material.
Quality recyclate action plan Scotland [ edit ] The Recyclate Quality Action Plan of Scotland sets out a number of proposed actions that the Scottish Government would like to take forward in order to drive up the quality of the materials being collected for recycling and sorted at materials recovery facilities before being exported or sold on to the reprocessing market.
Deliver greater transparency about the quality of recyclate. Provide help to those contracting with materials recycling facilities to identify what is required of them Ensure compliance with the Waste Scotland regulations Stimulate a household market for quality recyclate.
Address and reduce issues surrounding the Waste Shipment Regulations. The plan focuses on three key areas, with fourteen actions which were identified to increase the quality of materials collected, sorted and presented to the processing market in Scotland.Britain’s Dragonflies is the only comprehensive photographic field guide to the damselflies and dragonflies of Great Britain and Ireland.
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