Compare and contrast the two extracts

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Compare and contrast the two extracts

Published online Nov C ; Tim C Claypole: T ; Dan W Forman: D ; Paula E Row: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism s of action remain incompletely understood.

To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli.

Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays.

Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity.

Conclusions Many of the essential oils had antibacterial activity in the three assays, suggesting that they would be good candidates for testing in clinical trials. The observed antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves suggests a mechanistic explanation for the efficacy of a mixture of coriander, lemon balm and mint extracts against IBS in a published clinical trial.

IBS is characterised by altered bowel habit, pain, and wind or bloating, which all severely affect quality of life and may last for decades. The causes of IBS remain poorly understood, and include altered gut motor function, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal gas handling, alterations in the central nervous system, mild inflammation, disturbances in serotonin handling and genetic factors reviewed in [ 5 ].

Evidence has been mounting in the past decade that alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota may also play a role in IBS.

Background

An early study showed that patients with IBS-D excreted abnormally high levels of hydrogen compared to healthy individuals, suggesting that there was abnormal bacterial fermentation of ingested foods [ 6 ]. An exclusion diet reduced this. More recently the gastrointestinal microbiota of IBS patients have been compared with those from healthy subjects by bacterial culture or molecular approaches [reviewed in [ 78 ].

Many studies have found alterations in the numbers of bacterial species present, or in the abundance of particular bacterial species. The findings vary, but a common feature seems to be a reduction in the number of Bifidobacteria and increased numbers of Firmicutes and Enterobacteriaceae in samples from IBS patients compared to control samples.

IBS has also been linked to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, [reviewed in [ 7910 ], although this is currently somewhat controversial [ 8 ]. In contrast to the normal situation in which digestion and absorption of food is complete before the bolus reaches bacteria in the colon, in patients with SIBO, ingested food comes into contact with bacteria in the jejunum and ileum, and is fermented to produce gas, which has been visualised in the small intestine by abdominal radiography [ 15 ].

SIBO is typically diagnosed by giving patients a drink containing a poorly digestible sugar such as lactulose, and analysing their breath gases at intervals reviewed in [ 1617 ]. Glucose can also be used. Early breath tests diagnosed SIBO if hydrogen was excreted in two bursts, corresponding to bacterial fermentation in the small intestine, and in the colon.

However, a recent study has combined LHBTs with scintigraphy to follow the movement of a radiolabelled tracer through the gastrointestinal tract [ 23 ]. Of note, lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria speeds up gastrointestinal transit [ 26 ], raising the possibility that modest numbers of bacteria in the small intestine could speed up transit of lactulose and chyme to the colon, and result in a positive LHBT and IBS without fermenting the lactulose themselves.

An early study found E. There are currently various medicines available to treat IBS, including fiber, antispasmodic agents, and antidepressants to modulate pain perception [ 30 ]. Tricyclic antidepressants block diarrhoea whereas serotonin reuptake inhibitors can benefit IBS-C patients by stimulating gastrointestinal motility [ 30 ].

In agreement with the idea that alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota are involved in IBS, there has been considerable success with treatments that reverse this. Clinical trials have shown that antibiotics can be effective in treating IBS [ 3132 ].

Successful eradication of SIBO, and reversal of the symptoms of IBS have been achieved by treating IBS patients with antibiotics such as metronidazole [ 33 ], neomycin [ 18 ], the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin reviewed in [ 34 ]a combination of rifaximin and ciprofloxacin [ 35 ], or a combination of rifaximin and neomycin for IBS-C patients who produce methane [ 36 ].

Reduction of hydrogen or methane excretion was linked to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms and rifaximin was particularly effective in treating wind and bloating.

Compare and contrast the two extracts

SIBO can return after treatment, however [ 38 ] and there is concern that widespread and prolonged treatment with antibiotics could lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains [ 39 ]. Indeed rifaximin can be used to treat infections with Clostridium difficile[ 40 ], but rifaximin-resistant strains have been isolated [ 41 ], and the fact that some IBS patients are carriers of C.

In contrast, the use of probiotics aims to increase the number of beneficial bacteria.Identify strategies to compare and contrast two texts and to understand how to evaluate two texts. Easily adaptable activity- I've used two articles about Pamplona bull running - nice and gory/5(20). One of the most common is the comparison/contrast essay, in which you focus on the ways in which certain things or ideas—usually two of them—are similar to (this is the comparison) and/or different from (this is the contrast) one another.

Compare & Contrast Essay. Compare and contrast is a rhetorical style that discusses the similarities and differences of two or more things: ideas, concepts, items, places, etc.

The Best Way to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay - wikiHow

Compare two Excel files for differences Supposing you are organizing some event and, in your Excel table, you gather information about the participants such as a participant name, arrival date, number of seats, etc.

Both of the extracts interpret life on an island; they show the struggles and fear of individuals along with leadership. Lord of the Flies is a fictional prose with narrative and realism; whilst Lost is a fictional screen drama/realism with a genre of disaster/adventure.

Using both Comparison and Contrast General Guidelines on the Style of your Essay, or “How to Write a Comparative Analysis”: If you pursue a tertiary education, you'll be asked many times to write essays in which you compare and contrast two things: two texts, two theories, two historical figures, two scientific processes, and so on.

How to compare two Excel files or sheets for differences