The closest undoubted living relatives of English are Scots and the Frisian languages. Saterland Frisian language is spoken in nearby areas of Germany.
Messenger English has achieved prime status by becoming the most widely spoken language in the world — if one disregards proficiency — ahead of Mandarin Chinese and Spanish.
English is spoken in countrieswhile Arabic is spoken in 60, French in 51, Chinese in 33, and Spanish in From one small island, English has gone on to acquire lingua franca status in international business, worldwide diplomacy, and science.
Problems arise when English is a second language to either speakers, listeners, or both. When someone uses their second language, they seem to operate slightly differently than when they function in their native language.
Research from our group has shown that native speakers of Chinese, for example, tended to take more risks in a gambling game when they received positive feedback in their native language winswhen compared to negative feedback losses.
But this trend disappeared — that is, they became less impulsive — when the same positive feedback was given to them in English. It was as if they are more rational in their second language.
While reduced impulsiveness when dealing in a second language can be seen as a positive thing, the picture is potentially much darker when it comes to human interactions. In a second language, research has found that speakers are also likely to be less emotional and show less empathy and consideration for the emotional state of others.
For instance, we showed that Chinese-English bilinguals exposed to negative words in English unconsciously filtered out the mental impact of these words. And Polish-English bilinguals who are normally affected by sad statements in their native Polish appeared to be much less disturbed by the same statements in English.
Especially when conversations touch on culture and intimate beliefs. English is one of the most studied languages in the world. And in an exchange between a native and a foreign speaker, the research suggests that the foreign speaker is more likely to be emotionally detached and can even show different moral judgements.
While English provides a phenomenal opportunity for global communication, its prominence means that native speakers of English have low awareness of language diversity.
This is a problem because there is good evidence that differences between languages go hand-in-hand with differences in conceptualisation of the world and even perception of it. Inwe were able to show that native speakers of Greek, who have two words for dark blue and light blue in their language, see the contrast between light and dark blue as more salient than native speakers of English.
This effect was not simply due to the different environment in which people are brought up in either, because the native speakers of English showed similar sensitivity to blue contrasts and green contrasts, the latter being very common in the UK.
On the one hand, operating in a second language is not the same as operating in a native language. But, on the other, language diversity has a big impact on perception and conceptions.
This is bound to have implications on how information is accessed, how it is interpreted, and how it is used by second language speakers when they interact with others. In other words, we need truly bilingual exchanges, in which all involved know the language of the other.
So, it is just as important for English native speakers to be able to converse with others in their languages. Unfortunately, the best way to achieve near-native foreign language proficiency is through immersion, by visiting other countries and interacting with local speakers of the language.
Doing so might also have the effect of bridging some current political divides.List of English words derived from Sanskrit. The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either.
However, because languages are constantly evolving and changing, it must be flexible enough to absorb the changes to make sense of the evolutionary fluctuations in the language.
Syntax allows us to have fluid communication, allowing a universal understanding of each other.
These two words must be a couple of the trickiest ones in the English language. It seems as if no speakers, and only some writers, know how to use who and whom correctly. In fact, whom doesn’t even exist in some people’s vocabularies, and it appears to be a word that is quickly disappearing from the English language.
Who is used as the subject of the clause it introduces. Evolving English: One Language, Many Voices [David Crystal] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
One-third of the world’s population can speak or write in English, which is an unprecedented achievement for a language. How did this enormous reach come about? And what happens to a language when it is used by so many? Review BELIEFS ABOUT SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING Following theories of Vygotsky, Freire, and many others, Dr.
Richard-Amato argues that the field of second and foreign language teaching needs to head closer to the sociocultural end of the teaching continuum. Yesterday, the Open University released 'The History of English in 10 Minutes,' a witty animated sequence that takes you through years of linguistic history.
Yesterday, the Open University released 'The History of English in 10 Minutes,' a witty animated sequence that takes you through years of linguistic history. The Vikings gave us "give" and "take." Shakespeare added another 2, words and expressions to the mix. The British Empire (see video. The English language sure has its quirks. The complicated word, for instance, is only three letters. But did you know how long the longest English word is? few = not very many, with a focus on the fact that this number is (remarkably) small. "a few" = not very many, but at least more than one. Your examples (1) and (2) are talking about the same number of friends, but (1) focuses on the fact that this is a small number and carries a negative connotation, like you don't have as many as one should/could have.
The Vikings gave us "give" and "take." Shakespeare added another 2, words and expressions to the mix. The British Empire (see video.