Schema Theory Applications and Limitations Nigel Stott Fukuoka, Japan Schema theory describes the process by which readers combine their own background knowledge with the information in a text to comprehend that text. All readers carry different schemata background information and these are also often culture-specific. This is an important concept in ESL teaching, and prereading tasks are often designed to build or activate the learner's schemata.
Computers can handle a range of activities and carry out programmed functions at amazing speed. They can check exercises after they are done, move students gradually from easier to more difficult exercises according to their levels and abilities. When students fail to answer questions correctly or perform activities, the computer can simulate, drill, or explain the phenomenon in a way that makes it easier for the learner to understand Hoffman, However, technology, especially computers, has not yet gotten to the point where it can make a real difference in language instruction in ESL classroom.
This paper will focus on the question of how ESL reading can be facilitated with computer applications for language teaching and learning.
First, the paper will go over some of the available research on computers and ESL reading, and then discuss some programs and software that can be used in teaching and learning ESL reading for intermediate students.
The chart below shows how far technology is involved in the ESL curriculum. It is a comparison of the field of ESL to some other disciplines in humanities in terms of technology integration into the curriculum.
Previous Research The development of computer-based reading curricula had been taking place before the existence of microcomputers in the late s.
Central mainframe computers dispatched instructional lessons to individual terminals in different locations. The relative difficulty in using mainframe computers for educational applications led developers to consider the more practical and affordable microcomputers.
The first major computer-based reading curriculum was the work of Richard Atkinson in at Stanford University which was supported by a grant from the U. The project was a first-grade reading curriculum aimed to lessen the need for classroom teachers Atkinson, Computer-based reading curricula continued to develop but were of a commercial nature.
Though some research, primarily evaluative, was conducted, most computer-based reading curricula studies have been sponsored by the companies marketing them Reinking et al, These research attempts were exclusively for L1 reading.
Only during the past ten years has the use of computers in the field of teaching second language reading been increasing. A variety of studies have shown the importance of using computers in ESL reading Willet, They studied the effects of a dynamic visual advance organizer on the macro level and the effects of multimedia annotations for single vocabulary items on the micro level.
Furthermore, they examined the relationship between vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. The results of their study indicated that the visual advance organizer does aid in overall comprehension and that annotations of vocabulary items consisting of both visual and verbal information help more than verbal information only.
Also, a moderate correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension was found.
In another study to improve reading speed and comprehension of ESL students using computers, Culver implemented a computer reading program to determine the exit and entrance scores of ESL college students and to find out if their reading speed and comprehension would improve.
The results showed some improvements for the majority of students in the target group with an overall increase of 3. The results show important information about the effect of increasing reading speed on student comprehension as a result of employing computers.
It was concluded that the computer was a good tool for improving students' reading rate despite the fact that increased speed did not lead to increased levels of comprehension for some students. They merged this understanding with existing research on learning with technology to find out how students with different learning abilities put together "verbal and visual information".
Their goal, in this study, was not to determine the effectiveness of multimedia on reading comprehension, but rather the learners who may benefit from multimedia instruction.
They developed criteria and questions to evaluate: The goal of this study was to develop an evaluation tool based in light of a theory to help teachers choose the right reading programs for their students.
In drawing conclusion about the use of computers for reading instruction, previous research clearly supported the idea that computer-based instruction facilitates students' reading comprehension and increases their reading speed. These results should encourage ESL reading teachers to use computers in their classrooms not because they are "new technology" as reported by Wellington,but rather because of the positive results they bring to students' achievements.
Design After examining the previous research that dealt with computers and reading, it was found that computers were very useful in many aspects of literacy instruction. Using computers in teaching ESL reading, however, did not get the attention it deserved.
Most studies and software in the field were conducted and designed for L1 reading instruction. As a result, these activities aim to contribute to the field of second language reading instruction. This group of students may have difficulties with their reading comprehension and need to be prepared for freshman-level English reading or other college-level courses upon completion.
This paper will discuss three software programs that help ESL intermediate teachers to have their students practice reading using computers. The three software programs are: These activities are not meant to be used in one class period but rather in different classes depending on the type of reading we want to teach.
The first program, MacReader, is more concerned with sentences and paragraphs structures.Even when your paper is not a research paper you will be expected to introduce your argument as if into a larger conversation. "Place" your argument for your reader by naming the text, the author, the issues it raises, and your take on these issues.
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Teaching ESL Students to Read and Write Experimental-Research Papers. posit that these parts of a research paper are the most In all of the research articles the structure . PLAGIARISM FREE. We have a team of professional custom essay writers, able to create a paper from scratch.
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