By COGwriter Who was the most dangerous of the early heretics? Is the most dangerous heretic the one who directly denies Jesus and makes himself God, like Simon Magus did? Is the most dangerous heretic the one who first did away with the Old Testament and the Sabbath, like Marcion did? Is most dangerous heretic the first one who taught an odd Trinity like Montanus or Valentinus did?
Irenaeus[ edit ] Second-century philosopher Irenaeus developed a theodicy based on the idea that the creation of humans is still in progress. Irenaeus believed the first stage is complete, but the second stage requires humans to develop and grow into the likeness of God, a stage which Irenaeus believed is still in progress.
He believed that, in order to achieve moral perfection, humans must be given free choice, with the actual possibility of choosing to do evil. Irenaeaus believed that this world would include some suffering and evil to help people draw closer to God.
Jonah ended up repenting for his sin and the people of Nineveh turn to God. This fire would purify believers ahead of a new human community existing in the New Jerusalem.
Origen used two metaphors for the world: Through an allegorical reading of Exodus and the books of SolomonOrigen casts human development as a progression though a series of stages which take place in this life and after death.
Hell is a metaphor for the purification of our souls: Schleiermacher began his theodicy by asserting that God is omnipotent and benevolent and concluded that, because of this, "God would create flawlessly".
He proposed that it would be illogical for a perfect creation to go wrong as Augustine had suggested and that evil must have been created by God for a good reason.
Hick distinguished between the Augustinian theodicy, based on free will, and the Irenaean theodicy, based on human development.
He argued that to be created in the image of God means to have the potential for knowledge of and a relationship with God; this is fulfilled when creation in the likeness of God is complete.
Humanity currently exists in the image of God and is being developed into spiritual maturity. Hick justifies this by appealing to the concept of mystery.
He argues that, if suffering was always beneficial to humans, it would be impossible for humans to develop compassion or sympathy because we would know that someone who is suffering will certainly benefit from it. However, if there is an element of mystery to suffering, to the effect that some people suffer without benefit, it allows feelings of compassion and sympathy to emerge.
A genuinely loving God, he argued, would have created humans with free will. Hick held that it would be possible for God to create beings that would always freely choose to do good, but argued that a genuine relationship requires the possibility of rejection.
Hick argued that this would leave humans unable to help or harm one another, allowing them no moral choices and so preventing moral development.
He proposed a universalist theory, arguing that all humans would eventually reach heaven. Hick believed that there would be no benefit or purpose to an eternal Hell, as it would render any moral development inconsequential.
The eternal suffering of Hell could not be explained in terms of human development, so Hick rejected it. Despite this, he did not reject the existence of Hell outright, as to do so could make living morally in this life irrelevant. Rather, he argued that Hell exists as a mythological concept and as a warning of the importance of this life.
Knowledge of these consequences must be based on experience—Swinburne rejected the idea that God could implant such knowledge, arguing that humans would question its reliability.
The doctrine proposes that God is benevolent but suggests that his power is restricted to persuasion, rather than coercion and so is unable to prevent certain evil events from occurring. Robert Melse argued that, although suffering does sometimes bring about good, not all suffering is valuable and that most does more harm than good.
He argued that the Irenaean theodicy supposes that God inflicts pain for his own ends, which Griffin regarded as immoral. Phillips[ edit ] D. Phillips argued that the magnitude of suffering experienced in the Holocaust cannot be justified by any apparent gains Philosopher Dewi Zephaniah Phillips published The Problem of Evil and the Problem of God inpresenting a challenge to the Irenaean theodicy.Ireneaus Life Still a Mystery to Scholars.
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THE DEMONSTRATION OF THE APOSTOLIC PREACHING 1. Knowing, my beloved Marcianus, your desire to walk in godliness, which alone leads man to life eternal, I rejoice with you and make my prayer that you may preserve your faith entire and so be pleasing to God who made you.
In Christian theology, universal reconciliation (also called universal salvation, The mixed message about the afterlife described in the Bible has been commented on by scholars as early as ; then, Harvey W.
Scott wrote, (and many now still). Relatively little is known of the life of Irenaeus. As a boy he had, as he delighted to point out, listened to the sermons of the great bishop and martyr, Polycarp of Smyrna, who was regarded as a disciple of the apostles ashio-midori.com he came to know, 'the genuine unadulterated gospel', to which he remained faithful throughout his life.
Jan 01, · (That is, Ireneaus had a great legacy but it was under the radar and still is.) The essay that I profited from the most contrasted the As is often the case with a collection of scholarly articles, some are going to be more interesting to an interested non-scholar such as me/5.
And he also introduced prophetic and other misunderstandings that many still accept today. Irenaeus has been pointed to as being an early promoter of the "universal church" that certain others later also pushed (Pagels E.
Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas. For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work; Some scholars .