Throughout prehistoric time, man's quest for fitness has been driven by a desire to survive through hunting and gathering. Today, though no longer driven by subsistence requirements, fitness remains paramount to health and well-being.
Nancy Struna has argued that the growth in the research on the history of physical education reflected an increased interest in physical education both publicly and institutionally at schools, colleges and universities.
She also notes that the writers of these early history treatises had little or no formal training in history; they were not trained historians, but physical educators with an interest and a desire to record history.
These writers worked without support from their own departments, probably little or no collaboration or advice from historians working in other areas, and did not have access to formal associations for like minded physical educators to discuss their interests.
The history of physical education became an increasingly popular topic from the late s through to the s.
The field was marked by the emergence of the first major histories of physical education. Pioneering amongst these world histories of physical education were Van Dalen et al. Cultural, Philosophical, Comparative and Dixon et al.
These were the most comprehensive surveys of physical education from the ancient societies through the Middle Ages, to modern Europe, the United States and a host of other contemporary nations.
What these sources have in common was their attempts to survey the international developments of physical education with a heavy focus on linking physical activities in ancient, pre- modern and modern societies.
Not surprisingly, given their pioneering status and their internationalist approaches, both of these sources went through numerous reprints and editions. In fact, some of the physical educationalists have been acknowledged as the founders of the modern discipline of the history of sport Huggins, There was a greater appreciation of sport as a related but separate academic pursuit to physical education.
Whereas the history of physical education was originally a diverse field which focused Muths of cultures and civilizations essay physical education but also encompassed historical aspects of sport, sport was now seen as having an independence deserving of separate academic status.
Zeigler was forecasting the emergence of the history of sport, which as we shall see, eventually outstripped and consumed the history of physical education. While Dixon, McIntosh, Van Dalen and Zeigler were writing the early editions of their histories of physical education, there were no formal associations specifically representing their interests.
North Americans, for instance, presented their work at the College of Physical Education Association, but institutional development lacked until Seward Stanley, an early advocate of the history of physical education, along with his former doctoral student, Marvin Eyler and Zeigler initiated the History of Sport section at the College of Physical Education Association.
Similar processes were occurring in other countries with the formation of the International Committee for the History of Physical Education and Sport in and the International Association for the History of Physical Education and Sport in These societies initiated journals including the Journal of Sport History and Sporting Traditions respectively that exclusively focused on the new subdiscipline.
These societies and associations which also developed in Britain, Europe and Asia attracted a broader clientele than those involved in physical education departments including historians working in other related fields. In Australia, for example, historians of physical education formed a special interest group within the Australian Council for Physical Education, Dance and Recreation devoted to the history of physical education and they merged with interested social, economic and Australian historians, who had conducted small conferences and produced two edited collections from the late s, to form the Australian Society for Sport History.
Interest in history of sport boomed; history of physical education slumped. While Roland Naul has argued that there has been a renaissance in the history of physical education in Germany, other countries do not confirm this trend Kirk, a.
Whereas the s and s was a period that not only produced many manuscripts, but also a considerable body of theses from institutions like the University of Manchester which produced at least seven PhD and masters thesis see Crunden, C ; Deasey, E ; Moore, J.
D ; Wilson, M ; Woodward, A. C; Wright, E. Pthere has been diminishing postgraduate work and few published manuscripts in the history of physical education from the s.
These three sources, as worthy as they are in their own right, pale into insignificance in terms of the sheer bulk of work produced in previous decades.
The dramatic decline in the volume of historiography of physical education was most likely related to two issues. Firstly, there were structural, educational and ideological changes occurring in the discipline of physical education.
This transition is described in the Australian context: The history of physical education became unfashionable as it was subordinated by the new disciplines that appeared under a range of guises mentioned previously McKay, Gore and Kirk, Secondly, and working at precisely the same time, the field of sport history continued to grow and many of the practitioners in the schools of Physical Education broadened their interests to the history of sport rather than exclusively focusing on physical education.
Consequently advertised positions in the newly renamed schools were in the broader field of sport history rather the history of physical education. At this point physical educationalists had lost the battle over defining the focus of historical pursuits Huggins, These sport historians, with their sport history societies and specialist national and international journals, were interested in a wide range of topics, reflecting many of the concerns of social history, of which physical education only represented the periphery Parratt, ; Phillips, ; Struna In summary, changes in the academic discipline of physical education and the emergence and growth in the history of sport resulted in diminished interest in the history of physical education.
That interest has not been reinvigorated in the new millennium.
Core Concepts There are many important concepts in the history of physical education including social class, gender, the body, athleticism, muscular Christianity, social Darwinism, eugenics amongst others; however, the focus in this section is on what we consider the single most crucial core term.Ancient Civilizations Essay Examples.
27 total results. A History of Brewing Beer in Ancient Civilizations. 4, words. 10 pages. An Analysis of the Process of Brewing in Modern and Ancient Civilizations. 4, words. 10 pages. A History of Ancient Egypt. 1, words. 4 pages. The History of Fitness Lance C. Dalleck, M.S.
and Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Introduction As we enter the 21st century, one of the greatest accomplishments to be celebrated is the continuous pursuit of fitness since the beginning of man’s existence.
The culture and civilization tradition was a way of looking at the changing world and trying to put it back to how it was. The Culture and Civilization tradition was used as a tool for a nai?? ve community to try and understand how the media effected society. Ruling families in ancient civilizations frequently justified their position by invoking myths--for example, that they had divine origins.
Examples are known from Imperial China, pharaonic Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Polynesia, the Inca Empire, and India. Compare Contrast Mythology Essay. Dallas Texas, Unites States For thousands of years people have believed in all kinds of different gods to explain the different meanings in life.
Two of the most important gods to ever have been believed in was Zeus and Hades. They both are very different in so many ways, but also very close at the same time. Solar eclipses have caused fear, inspired curiosity, and have been associated with myths, legends, and superstitions throughout history.
Even today, an eclipse of the Sun is considered a bad omen in many cultures.