A new image for women developed, symbolizing the changing times.
Courtesy of the AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame In the s, Bessie Stringfield practically disappeared in a cloud of smoke, bolting across the walls of a wooden, bowl-shaped arena: She was on her way across the country, traveling completely alone—again—on a Harley. Bessie Stringfield, an African-American Bostonian originally from Jamaica, had already earned a title that would be given to her years later: At first, riding a motorcycle across the country might seem on the low end of remarkable acts, but in the s, especially for a black woman, that was not so.
Stringfield rode across the country on a motorcycle only 10 years after women gained the right to vote.
If she was traveling through Arkansas in the middle of the day and broke down? Stringfield had to be her own mechanic. Stringfield owned 27 Harleys in her lifetime.
Bessie Stringfield began traveling young; she was born in as Betsy Ellis, and her family immigrated to Boston, Massachusetts when she was a young child.
From the start Stringfield was faced with difficulties in life, though the exact details of her parents and some of her upbringing are muddy. Eventually, her name changed to Bessie. Stringfield received her first motorbike at 16, and taught herself to ride.
Stringfield immediately took good care of a serious case of wanderlust; after flipping a coin onto a map of the U. From throughshe made several trips in and out of Boston, getting a taste for the road.
Over the next few years she became the first black woman to ride a motorcycle in every one of the lower 48 states, and made motorcycle trips to Brazil, Haiti and parts of Europe.
While her first bike was an Indian Scout model, Stringfield soon discovered that she loved Harleys, which became her bike of choice; she owned 27 in her lifetime. To earn a living as she traveled, Stringfield wowed crowds at fairs and carnival sideshows with stunt acts including the Wall of Death, in which motorcyclists zoom sideways along the walls of a wooden bowl-shaped arena and glide nearly or actually upside-down in spherical cages.
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Stringfield also competed for coveted monetary prizes in flat-track raceswhere motorcyclists race over dirt oval tracks; though she entered races disguised as a man, she was often denied the prize money after it was revealed that a woman beat the men.
Shelly Connor writes in First-Wave Feminist Struggles in Black Motorcycle Clubs that Stringfield was one of few but visible women who were motorcyclists before the reactionary s version of femininity took hold.
Connor writes that some early black motorcycle clubs included both male and female members in the s, but it was still unusual for women to gain notoriety. Stringfield, both in and out of her motorbike gear. Racism was a danger that followed Stringfield everywhere, often landing her in precarious situations.
Riding alone on uncertain roads across the segregated United States was dangerous. Stringfield became an asset to the United States government during World War II, as a motorcycle dispatcherdespite being a civilian woman.
After her mother in Boston passed away inStringfield moved to Miami permanently, where she eventually bought a house and became a registered nurse. In Florida she faced discrimination from police for continuing to ride her motorcycle, she told Hines, but thwarted some of the officers by impressing the motorcycle police captain with her skills, performing figure eights and various tricks.
At age 70, she was still riding around Miami and riding her motorcycle to churchimpressing every person in her path. Stringfield also inspired a series of graphic novels inaimed at children, spreading the inspiration of her life to a new generation.
Looking back on her life, Stringfield said to the Miami Herald, during another interview with Hines, with a twinkle in her eye: I never was like anybody else.The GDP graph seems to reproduce the ups and downs of the AAD graph.
The conclusion is that GDP recovered from the Depression because the combined total of investment, government purchases and net exports grew to a level that pushed GDP to full employment and the full utilization of capacity.
Jul 28, · Watch video · Ups and downs: The history of roller coasters. From ice slides in the s to modern day wooden-steel hybrids, the coaster's evolution has been thrilling. Starting in the Reefer Madness era, the s, America got tough on drugs. Much of this effort was the result of one man, Harry Anslinger.
Think of him as the first drug czar. Ups and downs.
The opinions expressed in this post belong to the author and do not necessarily represent those of the National Motorists Association or the NMA. Business Cycles: Economic Ups and Downs.
Learning Objectives. Understand the distinctions between an economic recession and a depression. Compare and contrast the current recession in the United States with previous economic downturns. Recognize why the economic downturn in the s is called the Great Depression.
The Ups and Down of the Hemline November 08, Fashion is ever changing and every season there seems to be something "new" that is in style, and something that goes "out" of style. A worrisome ancillary finding shows that the percentage of American families with retirement accounts of all types (IRAs, (k)s, Keoghs, etc.) slipped below 50% in