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Kenje Ogata to Wilma Ogata, February 25, The NAACP Washington Bureau assumed responsibility for tracking and influencing federal legislation, monitoring government agencies administering federal regulations and programs, testifying before Congress, and working with other organizations with similar objectives.
Farmer —civil rights activist and educator, grew up in Texas. His father was one of the first African Americans to earn a Ph. He graduated from Wiley College at the age of eighteen and studied for the ministry at Howard University. As director, he organized new branches and led voter registration projects and desegregation protests throughout the country.
Farmer left CORE in to direct a national adult literacy project. Prints and Photographs DivisionLibrary of Congress CORE experimented with nonviolent direct action methods to tackle racial problems.
From toCORE members successfully used picket lines and sit-ins to break segregation at lunch counters in St. Congress of Racial Equality. The FEPC held hearings but lacked punitive powers.
Its authority was expected to encompass discrimination in labor union membership and employment. The FEPC expired in The Committee on Fair Employment Practices.
The Committee on Fair Employment Practices, Philip Randolph in With the end of the war, a conference was called to plan a nationwide strategy for bringing a permanent FEPC bill to the floor of Congress quickly. The Senate, dominated by Southern Democrats, successfully filibustered the bill in Subsequent bills to establish the FEPC as a permanent federal agency were blocked by the Senate in and This strategy was upheld by the Supreme Court in Grovey v.
In United States v. Classichowever, the court conversely held that a primary was an integral part of the electoral process, not a private activity.
Inspired by this decision, Thurgood Marshall decided to launch a new attack on the white primary. His client, Lonnie E.
Smith, was a black dentist from Houston who had been denied the right to vote in the primary by Judge S. On April 3,in Smith v.
Allwright, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Smith declaring the white primary void as a violation of the Fifteenth Amendment.
His Library of Congress Veterans History Project collection contains original photographs; here, he poses with comrades in various locations in Austria, Italy, and France. Watch the video U. My wife and baby are fine and we now have an apartment even though we have to share it with the owner.
Our new manager is really a contrast to Leo Durocher. Well Ralph I hope to see you for a while in St. The landmark event was captured in this exuberant front page photograph. Assistant Attorney General Roger Wilkins b.
Watch the video Morgan v. Virginia, On July 16,Irene Morgan refused to surrender her seat to white passengers and move to the back of a Greyhound bus while traveling from Gloucester County, Virginia, to Baltimore, Maryland.
She was arrested and convicted in the Virginia courts for violating a state statute requiring racial segregation on all public vehicles.
On June 3,by a 6-to-1 decision, the court ruled that the Virginia statute was unconstitutional when applied to passengers on interstate motor vehicles because it put an undue burden on interstate commerce. Virginia, May 20, During that same period he was a youth organizer for A. He planned and participated in the Journey of Reconciliation, the first Freedom Ride into the South.Watch video · The devastation of the Great War (as World War I was known at the time) had greatly destabilized Europe, and in many respects World War II grew out of issues .
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from to The vast majority of the world's countries —including all the great powers —eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
Watch video · By , after years of fighting in World War II, Italy was viewed by its own citizens as losing the war. While making a round of visits, Mussolini was detained and informed that the King had.
Feb 17, · Post-war scramble. The end of World War Two brought in its wake the largest population movements in European history. Millions of Germans fled or were expelled from eastern Europe.
World War II summary: The carnage of World War II was unprecedented and brought the world closest to the term “total warfare.” On average 27, people were killed each day between September 1, , until the formal surrender of Japan on September 2, One by one, the Russians started to take over countries in eastern Europe and install Communist governments there.
The division of Europe was the beginning of the Cold War, between the democratic nations of the west and the Communist countries of eastern Europe.